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# Cause and Effect Reasoning Questions for Competitive Exams

Vikram Singh2 years ago 4.2K Views

## Cause and Effect Reasoning:

The question on cause and effect reasoning are mainly designed to decide on a candidate’s ability to analyse a pair of given statements and to correlate them in terms of cause and effect. Five possibilities may arise :

1. The fact in the first statement is the effect of that mentioned in the second statement i.e. the second statement expresses the cause that leads to the condition mentioned in the first;

2. The contents of the first statement form the direct cause of the result discussed in the second statement;

3. Both the statements express generalized results that may not be backed by any specific cause but may influence certain other factors;

4. Both the statements are independent and may be explained as effects of different independent causes;

5. The effects in both the given statements may be caused or triggered by a third unmentioned event which may thus be called the common cause of the given events.

Directions: In each of the following questions, two statements numbered I and II are given. There may be cause and effect relationship between the two statements. These two statements may be the effect of the same cause or independent causes. These statements may be independent causes without having any relationship. Read both the statements in each question and mark your answer accordingly.

Give answer (a) if statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect;

Give answer (b) if statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect;

Give answer (c) if both the statements I and II are independent causes;

Give answer (d) if both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes;

Give answer (e) if both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause;

Ex. 1.

I. The local traders' association urged all its members to close down their shops for a day to protest against the government's new tax policy.

II. Many shopkeepers decided to close down their shops for the day and gave a day off to their employees.

Solution

Clearly, the association's decision to go for a 'bandh' on a massive scale to protest against the government's new policy would have instigated the shopkeepers to keep their shops closed. Thus, I mentions the direct cause of the effect in II. Hence the answer is (a).

### Practice Questions:

Directions: In each of the following questions, two statements numbered I and II are given. There may be cause and effect relationship between the two statements. These two statements may be the effect of the same cause or independent causes. These statements may be independent causes without having any relationship. Read both the statements in each question and mark your answer accordingly.

Give answer (a) if statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect;

Give answer (b) if statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect;

Give answer (c) if both the statements I and II are independent causes;

Give answer (d) if both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes;

Give answer (e) if both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause;

Q.1.

I. The prices of vegetables have been increased considerably during this summer.

II. There is tremendous increase in the temperature during this summer thereby damaging crops greatly.

Ans .   B

Clearly, damage to crops due to high temperature may have resulted in a short supply of vegetables and hence an increase in their prices

Q.2.

I. Police resorted to lathi to disperse the unlawful gathering of large number of people.

II. The citizens' forum called a general strike in protest against the police atrocities.

Ans .   A

Clearly, the people's mass protest against the police might have instigated the latter to indulge in lathi-charge to disperse the mob.

Q.3.

I. It is the aim of the city's civic authority to get air pollution reduced by 20% in the next two months.

Il. The number of asthma cases in the city is constantly increasing.

Ans .   B

The increase in number of asthma cases must have alerted the authorities to take action to control air pollution that triggers the disease.

Q.4

I. The police authority has recently caught a group of house breakers.

II. The citizens group in the locality have started night vigil in the area.

Ans .   E

Both the statements are clearly backed by a common cause, which is clearly and increase in the number of thefts in the locality.

Q.5

I. The university authority has instructed all the colleges under its jurisdiction to ban use of all phones inside the college premises.

II. Majority of the teachers of the colleges signed a joint petition to the university complaining the disturbances caused by cell phone ring-tones inside the classroom.

Ans .   B

Clearly, the university's decision came as a sequel to the complaint received by it from the college teachers against use of mobile phones in the college premises.

Q.6

I. The government has recently fixed the fees for professional courses offered by the unaided institutions which are much lower than the fees charged last year.

II. The parents of the aspiring students launched a severe agitation last year protesting against the high fees charged by the unaided institutions.

Ans .   B

The parents' protest against high fees being charged by the institutional led the government to interfere and fix the fees at a more affordable level.

Q.7.

I. Large number of people living in the low-lying areas have been evacuated during the last few days to safer places.

Il. The Government has rushed in relief supplies to the people living in the areas.

Ans .   E

Evacuating low-lying areas and rushing in relief to the affected areas clearly that floods have occurred in the area.

Q.8.

I. The performance of most of the students in final exam of class X in the by the Government was excellent.

II. Many teachers of the Government schools left the school and joined private school.

Ans .   D

The students of government schools performing well in the examinations and the teacher of government schools leaving their jobs to join private school are two separate situations that must have been triggered by independent causes.

Q.9.

I. Majority of the citizens in the locality belong to higher income group.

II. The sales in the local supermarket are comparatively much higher than in other localities.

Ans .   B

The comparatively higher sales in a particular locality are indicative of the high paying capacity of the residents of that locality.

Q.10.

I. There is considerable reduction in the number of people affected by water-borne disease in City A during this rainy season.

II. The government has opened four new civil hospitals in City A in the beginning of the year.

Ans .   C

The given statements are self-sufficient and depict independent events.