Logical Reasoning - Reasoning Statements with Explanation

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reasoning statements with explanation

Reasoning statements questions are very important in the logical reasoning section. Some students don't understand these statements questions in the competitive exams. So here in this blogs, I am sharing selective reasoning statement with explanation for your better preparation.

You should practice with these selective questions to obtain better rank in the competitive exams.

Types of Reasoning Statements with Solutions:


Type 1: Statement Arguments 

In this type of questions, a statement concerned with a political, social or economic issue is given, followed by certain arguments in favour of or against the statement. The candidate is required to analyse first the statement, then the arguments in context of the statement and finally decide which of the arguments hold(s) strong and helps(s) formulate the most appropriate opinion on the subjects.

Directions: Each of the following questions consists of a statement followed by two arguments I and II.

Given answers:

(a) if only argument I is strong;

(b) if only argument II is strong;

(c) if either I or II is strong;

(d) if neither I or II is strong and

(e) if both I and II are strong.

Ex. Statement: 

Should the parents in India in future be forced to opt for only one child as against the two or many at present?

Arguments: 

I. Yes. This is the only way to check the ever-increasing population of India.

II. No. This type of pressure tactic is not adopted by any other country in the world.

Solution:

Clearly, adopting such a policy will definitely help to regulate the population growth, which in turn will facilitate proper growth of the economy and optimum utilization of the country’s resources. So, argument I holds strong. Also, a comparison with what the other countries have done is no strong a criterion for taking a decision on the issue. So, argument II does not hold. Hence, the answer is (a).

Type 2: Statement Assumptions 

In this type of questions, a statement is given, followed by two assumptions. The candidate is required to assess the given statement and then decide which of the given assumptions is implicit in the statement.

Directions: In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

Given answers: 

(a) if only assumption I is implicit;

(b) if only assumption II is implicit;

(C) If either I or II is implicit;

(d) if either I nor II is implicit and

(e) If both I and II are implicit.

Ex. Statement: 

It is faster to travel by air to Delhi from Bangalore.

Assumptions: 

I. Bangalore and Delhi are connected by air.

II. There are no other means of transport available to Delhi from Bangalore.

Solution:

The statement advises to travel by air between the two cities. So, I is implicit. Besides, it talks of air transport being a faster means of travel. This means that other means of transport, slower than air transport, are available. So, II is not implicit. Hence, the answer is (a).

Type 3. Statement Courses of Action 

In this type of questions, a statement is given followed by two courses of action numbered I and II. The candidate is required to grasp the statement, analyse the problem or policy it mentions and then decide which of the courses of action logically follow(s).

Direction: In each question below is given statement followed by two courses of action numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true and on the basis of the information given in the statement, decide which of the suggested courses of action logically follows(s) for pursuing.

Give answer 

(a) if only I follow

(b) If only II follows

(c) If either I or II follows 

(d) If neither I nor II follows and 

(e) If both I and II follow.

Ex. Statement: 

The officer in charge of a Company had hutch that some money was missing from the safe.

Course of action 

I. He should get it recounted with the help of the staff and check it with the balance sheet.

II. He should inform the police.

Solution:

Clearly, a suspicion first needs to be confirmed and only when it is confirmed, should and action be taken. So, only course I follows.

Type 4. Statement Conclusions

In this type of question, a statement is given followed by two conclusions. The candidate is required to find out which of these conclusions definitely follows from the given statement and choose the answer accordingly.

Direction: In each of the following questions, a statement is given followed by two conclusions numbered I and II.

Given answer

(a) if only Conclusions I follow

(b) If only Conclusions II follows 

(c) If either I or II follows 

(d) If neither I nor II follows and 

(e) If both I and II follow.

Ex. Statement: 

1. Sealed tenders are invited from competent contractor experienced in executing construction jobs.

Conclusions: 

I. Tenders are invited only from experienced contractors.

II. It is difficult to find competent tenders in construction jobs.

Solution:

According to the statement, tenders are invited from contractors experienced in executing construction jobs. So, conclusion I follows. The availability of competent tenderers in construction jobs. So, conclusion I follows. The availability of competent tenderers in construction is not mentioned. So, conclusion II does not follow. Hence, the answer is (a).

Practice Questions of Statements:

Q.1. Direction: Each question given below consists of a statement, followed by two arguments numbered I and II. You have to decide which of the arguments is a ‘strong argument and which is a ‘weak’ argument.

Given answer 

(a) if only argument I is strong; 

(b) if only argument II is strong; 

(C) If either I or II is strong; 

(d) if neither I nor II is strong and 

(e) if both I and II are strong.

1. Statement:

Should agriculture in rural India be mechanized?

Arguments:

I. Yes. It would lead to higher production.

II. No. Many villagers would be left unemployed.


Ans .  A


Clearly, mechanization would speed up the work and increase the production. So, argument I is strong enough. Argument II is vague because mechanization will only eliminate wasteful employment, not create unemployment.

Q.2. Directions: In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

Given answer 

(a) if only assumption I is implicit; 

(b) if only assumption II is implicit; 

(C) If either I or II is implicit; 

(d) if either I nor II is implicit and 

(e) If both I and II are implicit.

1. Statement: 

If you have any problems, bring them to me.

Assumption: 

I. You have some problems.

II. I can solve any problem.


Ans .  B


The word ‘If’ shows that you do not necessarily have problems. So, I is not implicit. Also, the statement states that problems will be solved by ‘me’. So II is implicit.

Q.3.Direction: In each question below is given statement followed by two courses of action numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true and on the basis of the information given in the statement, decide which of the suggested courses of action logically follows(s) for pursuing.

Give answer 

(a) if only I follow; 

(b) If only II follows, 

(c) If either I or II follows 

(d) If neither I nor II follows and 

(e) If both I and II follow.

1. Statement 

There has been a significant drop in the water level of all the lakes supplying water to the city.

Courses of action 

1. The water supply authority should impose a partial cut in supply to tackle the situation.

2. The government should appeal to all the residents through mass media for minimal use of water.


Ans .  E


The situation can be tackled by periodic cuts in supply and urging people to conserve water. So both the courses follow.

Q.(4-5). Direction: In each of the following questions, a statement is given followed by two conclusions numbered I and II.

Given answer

(a) if only Conclusions I follow

(b) If only Conclusions II follows 

(c) If either I or II follows 

(d) If neither I nor II follows and 

(e) If both I and II follow.

1. Statement: 

The distance of 900 km by road between Bombay and Jafra will be reduced to 280 km by sea. This will lead to a saving of Rs. 7.92. crores per annum on fuel.

Conclusions: 

I. Transportation by sea is cheaper than that by road.

II. Fuel must be saved to the greatest extent.


Ans .  B


According to the statement, sea transport is cheaper than road transport in the case of route from Bombay to Jafra, not in all the cases. So, conclusion I does not follow. The statement stresses on the cases. So, conclusion I does not follow.

Q.5. Statement:

Good voice is a natural gift but one has to keep practicing to improve and excel well in the field of music.

Conclusions: 

I. Natural gifts need nurturing and care.

II. Even though your voice is not good, one can keep practicing.


Ans .  A


Clearly, I followed directly from the given statement. However, II is not related to the given statement and so does not follow.

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Vikram Singh

Providing knowledgable questions of Reasoning and Aptitude for the competitive exams.

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