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# Logical Reasoning Test Topics with Examples for competitive exam

Vikram Singh3 years ago 2.0K Views

Statement Arguments

In this type of questions, a statement concerned with a political, social or economic issue is given, followed by certain arguments in favor of or against the statement. The candidate is required to analyze first the statement, then the arguments in the context of the statement and finally decide which of the arguments hold(s) strong and helps(s) formulate the most appropriate opinion on the subjects.

Directions: Each of the following questions consists of a statement followed by two arguments I and II.

(a) if only argument I is strong;

(b) if only argument II is strong;

(c) if either I or II is strong;

(d) if neither I or II is strong and

(e) if both I and II are strong.

Ex. Statement:

Should the parents in India in future be forced to opt for only one child as against the two or many at present?

Arguments:

I. Yes. This is the only way to check the ever-increasing population of India.

II. No. This type of pressure tactic is not adopted by any other country in the world.

Clearly, adopting such a policy will definitely help to regulate the population growth, which in turn will facilitate proper growth of the economy and optimum utilization of the country’s resources. So, an argument I hold strong. Also, a comparison with what the other countries have done is no strong a criterion for taking a decision on the issue. So, argument II does not hold. Hence, the answer is (a).

Statement Assumptions

In this type of questions, a statement is given, followed by two assumptions. The candidate is required to assess the given statement and then decide which of the given assumptions is implicit in the statement.

Directions: In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

(a) if only assumption I is implicit;

(b) if only assumption II is implicit;

(C) If either I or II is implicit;

(d) if either I nor II is implicit and

(e) If both I and II are implicit.

Ex. Statement:

It is faster to travel by air to Delhi from Bangalore.

Assumptions:

I. Bangalore and Delhi are connected by air.

II. There are no other means of transport available to Delhi from Bangalore.

The statement advises to travel by air between the two cities. So, I is implicit. Besides, it talks of air transport being a faster means of travel. This means that other means of transport, slower than air transport, are available. So, II is not implicit. Hence, the answer is (a).

Statement Courses of Action

In this type of questions, a statement is given followed by two courses of action numbered I and II. The candidate is required to grasp the statement, analyse the problem or policy it mentions and then decide which of the courses of action logically follow(s).

Direction: In each question below is given statement followed by two courses of action numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true and on the basis of the information given in the statement, decide which of the suggested courses of action logically follows(s) for pursuing.

(a) if only I follow

(b) If only II follows

(c) If either I or II follows

(d) If neither I nor II follows and

(e) If both I and II follow.

Ex. Statement:

The officer in charge of a Company had hutch that some money was missing from the safe.

Course of action

I. He should get it recounted with the help of the staff and check it with the balance sheet.

II. He should inform the police.

Clearly, a suspicion first needs to be confirmed and only when it is confirmed, should and action be taken. So, only course I follows.

Statement Conclusions

In this type of question, a statement is given followed by two conclusions. The candidate is required to find out which of these conclusions definitely follows from the given statement and choose the answer accordingly.

Direction: In each of the following questions, a statement is given followed by two conclusions numbered I and II.

(a) if only Conclusions I follow

(b) If only Conclusions II follows

(c) If either I or II follows

(d) If neither I nor II follows and

(e) If both I and II follow.

Ex. Statement:

1. Sealed tenders are invited from competent contractor experienced in executing construction jobs.

Conclusions:

I. Tenders are invited only from experienced contractors.

II. It is difficult to find competent tenders in construction jobs.

According to the statement, tenders are invited from contractors experienced in executing construction jobs. So, conclusion I follows. The availability of competent tenderers in construction jobs. So, conclusion I follows. The availability of competent tenderers in construction is not mentioned. So, conclusion II does not follow. Hence, the answer is (a).

In this type of questions, a paragraph is given followed by certain statements which may or may not be inferred from the passage. The candidate is required to choose that statement which contains the gist or the theme of the passage i.e., the idea that it conveys.

Example: Through advertising, manufacturing exercises a high degree-of control over consumer's desires. However, the manufacturer assumes enormous risks in attempting to predict what consumers will want and in producing goods in quantity and distributing them in advance of final selection by the consumers.

The paragraph best supports the statement that manufacturers –

(a) distribute goods directly to the consumers.

(b) can eliminate the risk of overproduction by advertising.

(c) always take moderate and calculated risk.

(d) can predict with great accuracy the success of any product they put on the market

(e) must depend upon the final consumers for the success of their undertakings

According to the passage, it is very difficult for the manufacturer to predict the consumers' response to his products, but by advertising, he can stimulate the consumers to buy his product. So, the theme of the paragraph is best mentioned in (b).

(a) is incorrect because it is mentioned in the paragraph that manufacturers distribute goods in advance of their demands and not directly to the consumers.

(c) is wrong because according to the passage, manufacturers take 'enormous’ and not moderate' risks.

(d) is wrong because it is mentioned in the passage that manufacturers take great risk in predicting what the consumers want.

(e) is a true statement but it does not depict the complete theme of the passes.

Logical Reasoning Deriving Conclusions Questions

In this section of logical deduction, the question consists of a brief passage (usually a report containing certain data regarding some social or economic problem), Followed by certain inferences based on it. The candidate is required to analyse the content ( or data ) of the passage and grasp the desirable facts from it.

Then, he has to consider each of the given inferences in the context of the given passage, decide upon its degree of truth or falsity and then choose the best alternative provided accordingly.

Directions: Read the following passage and examine each inference given below it in the context of this passage.

(a) if the inference is 'definitely true'

(b) if the inference is 'probably true';

(c) if the 'data provided is inadequate';

(d) if the inference is 'probably false'; and

(e) if the inference is 'definitely false'.

Example 1. The World Health Organization has called for improved surveillance to combat dengue and says the outbreak can be controlled in two weeks if all necessary step Are taken to stop the mosquitoes from breeding and break the transmission cycle.

Dengue is already the most widespread mosquito-borne disease among humans. In the past 15 years, outbreaks in South and South-East Asia have been rapidly rising mostly due to falling environmental and public health standards during urbanization. WHO, reports that severe forms of the disease such as haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and shock syndrome (DSS) are putting more 2.5 million people at risk worldwide each year? Importantly, 95 % of the DHF case are among children less than 15 years. Therefore, the disease has major impacts on public health and future generations.

1. If rate of urbanization in South Asia is controlled, outbreaks of all disease a reduced.

2. World Health Organization has not collected data of outbreak of dengue in the past.

3. There was no outbreak of dengue in the European countries in the recent past.

4. Over the last decade, South Asian countries have not successfully stepped up mechanism to combat dengue.

5. DSS type dengue seems mostly to be affecting the adults.

1. It is mentioned in the passage that 'outbreaks in South and South East Asia have been rapidly rising mostly due to falling environmental and public health standards during urbanization'. Thus, the fact in the question is quite probable. So, the conclusion is probably true.

2. The passage talks of outbreak of dengue during the past 15 years. This contradicts give European countries. Hence, the data are inadequate

3. The passage mentions the outbreak of dengue during in Asian countries only and not the European countries. Hence the data are inadequate

4. It is mentioned in the passage that cases of outbreak of dengue are rapidly rising in South Asian countries since the last 15 years. This means that adequate steps to combat dengue have not been taken. Hence, the conclusion is definitely true.

5. Nothing about the effect of DSS type dengue is mentioned in the passage. Hence the data are inadequate.

cause and effect

The question on cause and effect reasoning are mainly designed to decide on a candidate’s ability to analyse a pair of given statements and to correlate them in terms of cause and effect. Five possibilities may arise :

Directions: In each of the following questions, two statements numbered I and II are given. There may be cause and effect relationship between the two statements. These two statements may be the effect of the same cause or independent causes. These statements may be independent causes without having any relationship. Read both the statements in each question and mark your answer accordingly.

Give answer (a) if statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect;

Give answer (b) if statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect;

Give answer (c) if both the statements I and II are independent causes;

Give answer (d) if both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes;

Give answer (e) if both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause;

Ex. 1. I. The local traders' association urged all its members to close down their shops for a day to protest against the government's new tax policy.

II. Many shopkeepers decided to close down their shops for the day and gave a day off to their employees.

v

Clearly, the association's decision to go for a 'bandh' on a massive scale to protest against the government's new policy would have instigated the shopkeepers to keep their shops closed. Thus, I mentions the direct cause of the effect in II. Hence the answer is (a).